The lsusb output confirmed your asus wireless including the usb id "0b05:17ba".
The lsmod output showed no wireless drivers at all.
I went to the ASUS site to get the same driverversion as you have (the latest, the one on disk was outdated) and ran the install.sh on my computer, resulting in a new driver module which contains the correct id-number.
So, please remove all old driver folders from your desktop and leave the unzipped new driver folder there.
Now let's proceed with making your driver.cd
Desktop/RTL.... (long folder name, use TAB)
check with the command ls
that the install.sh file is there.
while in this folder do (one by one)
chmod +x install.sh
WARNING: exit brings you out of root-mode, don't forget it.
It's possible that on your computer the module is allready inserted by the script, so don't worry if there is an error about that.
You can perform a few checks (if you want)
modinfo 8192cu | grep -i 17ba
lsmod | grep 8192
The first command should produce a line that contains the id-number for your adapter-chip.
The second should produce lines with the new driver and a few others with modules that are related to this.
All in all your adapter should now work.
Please let us know your results.