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Mendiculus last won the day on January 1

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About Mendiculus

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  1. New to Linux, installing on IBM ThinkPad X31

    Thanks for all the responses and suggestions – especially Charles' detailed explanation, since all this is new to me. After some ten days since I thought I'd spend maybe a few hours installing Bodhi Linux on my MacBook, then tried on to the ThinkPad, I still haven't accomplished either. Seems like every time I try to do something, I find there's something else I have to do first. But I've learned a lot, and collected a lot of information, beginning to build a foundation for moving ahead. There's a lot to learn, but I'm enjoying it. I do "have a Windows machine", but no experience with Windows; at first I thought I would just wipe it and install a Linux, but I've decided instead to spend a little time getting to know it, since I'm sure at least an elementary acquaintance with Windows will be a help in learning Linux (and frankly I'm kind of curious after all these years knowing nothing about it). And keep it as an alternative boot in case I want to do anything with the ThinkPad – e.g. upgrading the BIOS – which is probably best done with the factory OS. Now I've spent some time with the ThinkPad, I find I rather like it; it's quite a sharp little machine, a gem of precise design. To be able to use it – albeit not for heavy work – with an up-to-date OS is very appealing. (Though learning to use the TrackPoint is going to be a chore.) The battery's dead, but I can get a replacement for $20-30. Otherwise, I'm going to learn about it and what needs to be updated: BIOS (took about an hour one afternoon to find the updater, hidden on Lenovo site), Windows (Microsoft makes it very clear they no longer support XP, so I had to do some extra hunting to find SP3), etc. And experiment with creating a boot USB drive with the various utilities there. Interesting they all seem so different. So there's a bunch of stuff to do before I try again to put Bodhi on it. And I might try another lightweight Linux as well. I also found some instructions for using the dd command in MacOS (given my experience so far, I suspect the Linux procedure detailed in the Bodhi Installation Instructions might not work on the Mac). Another possibility would be to burn the iso/image to a CD-ROM. Would the Bodhi installer fit on a CD? They max out at 700MB, while the .iso is about 770MB. Anyway, I think my next step at the moment will be to install Bodhi in a VM on my MacBook Pro, so I can at least take a look at it – which was what I wanted to do originally. However, I first want to reinstall MacOS 10.12 on that, as it's been giving me trouble. But that I know how to do, so it shouldn't take long :-). The rest of the Linux Project I'm going to put aside for a while, and get back to the many other chores I've been neglecting while absorbed in this adventure.
  2. Since installing Bodhi Linux on my MacBook turned out to be more complicated than I expected, I decided to try the ThinkPad X31 (mentioned in my previous post). IBM ThinkPad X31 (2004) BIOS v. 2.03 Intel 1.6GHz Pentium-M Banias processor, 32-bit single-core, no PAE 512MB, 40GB HD 12.1" Display, 1024x768 2 USB ports, 1 FW400 port (4-pin, no power), modem, ethernet, VGA ports CD-RW/DVD DRIVE in Ultrabase 11a/b/g Wireless LAN Mini PC Adapter Windows XP Pro, SP1 Checksum of bodhi-4.4.0-legacy.iso matched. So I used UNetbootin to copy it to the Bodhi Linux branded flash drive. As with the bodhi-4.4.0-64.iso, UNetbootin showed an alert during creation of the Bootable USB: "The file /Volumes/BODHI LINUX/isolinux/isohdpfx.bin already exists." As the Bodhi USB drive was freshly formatted, that seems unlikely. Anyway, again I told it to replace all duplicate files. Again UNetbootin told me the created USB device wouldn't boot a Mac, though I later found it would boot the MacBook. Inserted the USB drive in the ThinkPad; in Windows, My Computer shows it as (E:). So far so good; can I start from it? ----------------------------------------- Pressed F1 during startup, IBM BIOS Setup Utility appeared. Navigated to Startup: Boot. Under Removable Devices it said only Legacy Floppy Drives; I found Generic USB Flash Disk under Hard Drive, selected it and enabled it using Insert key <Ins> (a ! appeared to the left of it) , and moved it up in the list using F6; it would only go up under Hard Drive, now above IC25N040ATCS05-0-(PM), which appears to be the internal hard drive. Pressed F10 to Save & Exit. Shut down and restarted, but still went into Windows. Started again with F1, checked and found ! Generic USB Flash Disk is still above the hard drive. Noted the BIOS Setup Utility Boot screen said "USB BIOS support must be enabled for USB boot." Is that the problem? ----------------------------------------- Pressed Access IBM button during startup to open Access IBM program. Searched for USB BIOS Support, which it said is Enabled (by default). So that doesn't appear to be the problem. Selected Access IBM: Startup, which said: Alternate Startup Devices Double-click the icon of the startup (boot) device you want to use. Removable media (icon of floppy disk) Hard disk drive ATAPI CD-ROM drive Network USB Flash Disk doesn't appear. I couldn't find mention of it anywhere in Access IBM. ----------------------------------------- Bodhi Installation Instructions: "Many systems will allow you to enter a “one time boot menu” by pressing F2 or F12 during initial system start-up. This will give you several options (CD/DVD, USB, Network, Hard Drive, etc) from which to boot." F2 during startup produces screen that says: ERROR 0210: Stuck Key 3C Press <F1> to Setup I press F1, IBM BIOS Setup Utility opens. See above. F12 during startup produces Boot Device List: 1. Removable Devices: starts from hard drive as usual 2. Hard Drive: starts from hard drive as usual 3. CD-ROM drive 4. IBA GE Slot 0208 v1202 Generic USB Flash Disk doesn't show at all. ----------------------------------------- I go back to the MacBook (2008 model), find that the Bodhi Legacy USB drive starts it, though the MacBook is 64-bit computer (last 32-bit Macs were in mid-2006). Will a 32-bit OS run a 64-bit computer? I guess so. So, just to make sure, I once again erase the Bodhi Linux branded flash drive, format it FAT32, and use UNetbootin to set it up from the bodhi-4.4.0-legacy.iso, and again try the procedures above. Same result: no go. I'm stumped. Suggestions?
  3. New to Linux, installing on MacBook

    Charles: Thanks for the details. Clearly a lot to learn. I know I did figure out a lot of this when I managed to install Ubuntu on an iBook (with a PowerPC CPU, which was more complicated in some ways than installing on a more recent Mac). But that was ten years ago, so I've pretty much forgotten what I learned then. I also have an IBM ThinkPad X31 a friend gave me back then to try with Linux, so I'll be working with that too. I had to quit working with computers almost entirely for most of the last decade due to ill health; I found myself unable to think hard enough to deal with the complexity ("cognitive impairment" they call it). Lately I seem to be recovering, and seem to be drawn back into the computer world. So far I don't feel swamped, but I need to pace myself, and it'll take a while, step by step. Thanks for your help – one of the things I like about the Open Source world is the community feeling – and I'll post again when I've made some progress.
  4. New to Linux, installing on MacBook

    Charles: AFAIK the command in OS-X is plain 'md5 filename', not 'md5sum filename' Thanks for the tip; that worked, the .iso checked out good. So I proceed. Next I ran into a couple mysterious glitches using UNetbootin to create the Bootable USB using the Bodhi Linux branded flash drive (following the Installation Instructions Wiki page): During the installation process, an alert appeared: "The file /Volumes/BODHI LINUX/isolinux/isohdpfx.bin already exists." I hadn't looked at the Bodhi Linux USB drive to see if there was anything on it – but later when I repeated the procedure after I'd erased the USB drive UNetbootin showed the same alert, though I knew the drive was empty. Anyway, I went ahead and told it to replace All. When the installation on the USB drive was complete, UNetbootin reported: "The created USB device will not boot off a Mac. Insert it into a PC, and select the USB boot option in the BIOS boot menu." Indeed, the USB drive didn't show in the Startup Disk Preference Pane (nor would I expect it to, since it is not a MacOS volume). However, when I restarted the MacBook Pro in the Startup Manager (with the option key pressed, shows all possible startup volumes), two extra volumes appeared, identified as "Windows" and "EFI Boot". Selected "Windows", but got a black screen with a message saying "Boot error". Selected "EFI Boot", and it worked fine, except that most of the type on the screen was extremely tiny – possibly due to the very fine native resolution of the display (2013 model, retina 15", 220ppi)? (I presume this can be dealt with once Bodhi Linux is installed?) When I tried the MacBook (not Pro), the Bootable USB showed only as "EFI Boot", and started the computer fine, with easily readable type (13" screen, 1200x800). Meanwhile, I had a lot of trouble with the Bodhi Linux USB drive, which I couldn't get to make a reliable connection in either of the MacBook Pro's USB ports. Turns out its USB connector plug, which extends out of the housing when the handle is pushed, is about a millimeter shorter than any other USB plug I have, so when inserted it barely makes a connection, and disconnects (unmounts) easily (as in right in the middle of an operation) if touched or bumped. Is this particular one faulty, or are they all like this? (I also tried another utility named Etcher to make a Bootable USB, having heard about it from this article by another Mac user who said he couldn't get UNetbootin to work. Etcher worked, but with some even more weird glitches, so I went back to UNetbootin.) So I continued with the MacBook (2008 Aluminum Unibody model), which is where I want to install Bodhi anyway. The HD in the MacBook has several partitions, each with a different version of MacOS installed. I erased one partition I didn't need, formatting it in FAT32. (MacOS Disk Utility also offers ExFAT format, and explains: "MS-DOS (FAT): Use for Windows volumes that are 32 GB or less. ExFAT: Use for Windows volumes that are over 32 GB." Should I then use ExFAT instead for a 50 GB volume?) Once the MacBook was running from the Bootable USB, I clicked the little leaf at the lower left, to Install Bodhi Linux. Selected English. Did not check "Download updates" and "Install third-party software"; get to those later. Next is "Installation type". Not sure what "Install Bodhi alongside them" does; when I selected it, the next screen showed two panels, under the legend "Allocate drive space by dragging the divider below:" On the left with an icon of a file folder it said: Files (8.7 GB) /dev/sda4 (fat32) 27.9 GB While on the right was an Ubuntu icon (?) and: Bodhi /dev/sda5 (ext4) 22.1 GB Then below: "8 smaller partitions are hidden. use [sic] the advanced partitioning tool for more control" I clicked on that, and it took me to the same screen that shows when "Something else" is selected in the Installation type screen, displaying a list of the present partitions. The partition I intended to use is at /sda4, 50 GB, formatted as FAT32; apparently the "Files" panel above refers to that, though it says it's now only 27.9 GB. /sda5 is presently another 50 GB partition with MacOS installed; I certainly don't want to delete/erase/replace it. Anyway, in this "Installation type" window with the list of partitions presently on the disk, at the bottom under "Device for boot loader installation" I saw a dropdown menu with a duplicate of the list of partitions, so I selected /dev/sda4, the 50 GB FAT32 volume I'd created. Then selected "Install Now", and an alert appeared: "No root file system. No root file system is defined. Please correct this from the partitioning menu." I don't see a "partitioning menu", but there is a button that says "New Partition Table…"; however it is inactive. It becomes active if I select "/dev/sda" at the top of the partition list, which I understand to be selecting the entire disk. And indeed, I am warned that continuing with "New Partition Table…" will repartition and erase the entire disk (losing several hundred GB of data), which I certainly don't want to do. The Installation Instructions Wiki page simply assumes that "Erase disk and install Bodhi" is the user's choice, says nothing about the "Something else" option. The instructions appear not to have been updated since Bodhi 3.0.0; anyway I didn't see the first screen pictured at all. I also came across a PDF titled "Step-by-Step Guide to Bodhi Linux 4" by Roger Carter (I don't remember where I got it, thought it was on the Bodhi Linux site, but don't find it there now), but it makes the same assumption. I did an Internet search for "bodhi linux installation" and found a couple other sets of instructions, but again, both assumed I was ready to erase the computer's disk to install BL. Which I'm not. I just want to put it on the empty partition I prepared for it. Suggestions?
  5. How to include a picture in a post?

    So, to get this straight, the only way to include a picture or graphic in a post is to upload it to a third-party server first, then link to it in the post? I'm guessing this is so that this forum's server won't become overloaded with graphic files in time?
  6. On the posting form, right above the text area, is a row of buttons, for B, I, U, etc. The eleventh button looks like a little picture frame, and if the cursor is rested on it for a moment, a little popup appears saying "Image". The Help page shows this icon, and next to it says "This will insert an image." I expected it to allow me to select an image file on my computer (such as a screen capture or photograph) to upload to my post; but when I click it, it shows a window that wants a URL – an image hosted somewhere on the Internet? The Help page also discusses Attachments: "Depending on where in the community you are posting your message at, you may be able to upload attachments to your message. There are two types of uploaders available: the default uploader and the flash uploader." I don't see anything on the posting form that seems to relate to this. Is there some way to upload an image file from my computer to include in a post?
  7. I've been in the Macintosh environment exclusively for going on 30 years, since I got my first Mac Plus in 1988. I'm more knowledgeable than most Mac users, and made my living for some 15 years providing Mac support; however, I have little experience with CLI procedures or suchlike, as are commonly used in Linux – and I guess, by some in Windows. I've been thinking for some years about getting into Linux (I did manage to install Ubuntu on an iBook some years back, but never went further into it), and as a Buddhist was charmed to discover recently the Bodhi distro, so thought I'd give it a look. Unfortunately, I haven't gotten far, as I've run into a couple of problems; so I thought I'd check in and ask. Following the Installation Instructions Wiki, I downloaded the bodhi-4.4.0-64.iso via torrent, and the bodhi-4.4.0-64.iso.md5 file, and placed both in the Downloads folder in my MacBook Pro (MacOS 10.12). I expect the .iso is probably okay, but figured since I'm new at this, I should do everything step by step, to learn all I can. So following Step C, I opened the Terminal application (included in MacOS), and navigated to the Downloads folder. I entered the command cat bodhi-4.4.0-64.iso.md5, and it showed a long string, presumably the checksum in the .md5 file. I then entered the command md5sum bodhi-4.4.0-64.iso, which I presume should match the checksum in the .md5 file with that in the .iso file; but Terminal responded: -bash: md5sum: command not found. I also tried the command in Step 7.5: md5sum -c bodhi-4.4.0-64.iso.md5; but the result was the same. I'm certainly no expert with Terminal, though I have used it a few times to do things like enabling root. I looked in the Help, found a number of items for "md5", but none for "md5sum". I was more or less assuming that such commands would be the same in MacOS as in Linux, both being in the Unix family. Apparently not? What should I do?